Conspiracy theories have often helped fuel violence against Muslims. Below is a list and explanation.
Love Jihad – Conspiracy theory that claims that Muslim men are luring Hindu women into marriage on false pretences, in an attempt to convert them to Islam and help bring about Muslim dominance over Hindus in India.
Land Jihad – The notion that Muslims are intentionally occupying public or government land by building religious structures or holding mass prayers on them. This conspiracy theory has been spread by several news channels and ruling-party politicians.
Economic Jihad – The false and bigoted conspiracy theory that ordinary Muslim businesses and individuals are engaged in a coordinated effort to cause economic harm to Hindus.
Halal Jihad – The conspiracy theory that halal certifications are an attempt to harm Hindus and reflect a coordinated attempt to threaten the Indian economy and raise money for terrorism.
Mazaar Jihad – The conspiracy theory that Muslims intentionally build shrines (mazaars) on government and forest land to claim the territory.
Thook Jihad – The conspiracy theory suggests that Muslims ‘spit’ on Hindus to spread infectious diseases, such as Covid-19 and contaminate the food they cook.
Population Jihad – The bigoted conspiracy theory claims that there is some coordinated attempt by Muslims to become the majority community in India, overtaking Hindus. Based on the last census, Muslims only comprise 14 per cent of India’s population. This includes Hindutva adaptations of the white-nationalist Great Replacement Theory, based on the false premise that the Muslim population in India will overtake the Hindu population.
UPSC Jihad – This theory asserts that Muslims are ‘infiltrating’ the Indian bureaucracy by gaming and manipulating the rules of national civil service exams organised by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). In truth, Muslims have consistently been and continue to be underrepresented in the Indian bureaucracy.
Fertiliser Jihad – The false notion that Muslim farmers are primarily responsible for the overuse of fertilisers in agriculture. Initially spread by the BJP chief minister of Assam, Himanta Biswa Sarma.